Tanjung Puting is one of the natural wonders of the world! You may not believe this after you have been there only two days or three days, but after the fourth or fifth day something happens. You are captivated completely by the purity of the air, the openness of the night sky with the most remarkable view of the Milky Way, the magnificence and dignity of the gentle orangutans, the thundering downpours that instantly cool the air, and the clarity of the brilliant crimson sunsets. Tanjung Puting is the largest and most diverse protected example of extensive coastal tropical heath and peat swamp forest which used to cover much of southern Borneo. The area was originally declared as a game reserve in 1935 and a National Park in 1982. While the Park has a checkered history of weak protection, nonetheless, it remains substantially wild and natural.
Tanjung Puting is covered by a complex mosaic of diverse lowland habitats. It contains 3,040 km2 (or 1,174 square miles) of low lying swampy terrain punctuated by blackwater rivers which flow into the Java Sea. At the mouth of these rivers and along the sea coast are found nipa/mangrove swamps. Mangroves teem with animal life. Tanjung Puting also includes tall dry ground tropical rain forest, primarily tropical heath forest, with a canopy of 30 meters (approximately 100 feet) with “emergents” exceeding 50 meters (approximately 165 ft) in height, seasonally inundated peat swamp forest with peat in layers two or more meters (approximately 7 feet) deep, open depression lakes formed by fire, and open areas of abandoned dry rice fields now covered with elephant grass and ferns. The tropical heath forest which is called “kerangas” in parts of Borneo, is only found on very poor, typically white-sandy soils and is characterized by medium-sized trees.
The best known animals in Tanjung Puting are the orangutans, made famous through the long-term efforts of the Orangutan Research and Conservation Program (predecessor to OFI), based at the landmark Camp Leakey research station. Tanjung Puting also boasts the bizarre looking proboscis monkey with its “Jimmy Durante” nose as well as seven other primate species. Clouded leopards, civets, and Malaysian sun bears cavort in the park, as do mouse deer, barking deer, sambar deer, and the wild cattle known as banteng. Tanjung Puting hosts over 230 species of birds, including hornbills, deep forest birds, and many wetland species. Tanjung Puting is well known for its “bird lakes,” seasonal rookeries for a half a dozen species of endangered waterbirds, including the only known Bornean nesting grounds for white egrets. Tanjung Puting also has two species of crocodiles, dozens of snakes and frogs, numerous threatened species, including the fortune-bringing and highly endangered “dragon” fish also known as the Arwana (bony-tongue). Among the most flamboyant of these animals are the many species of colorful birds, butterflies, and moths found in the Park.
Tanjung Puting sits on a peninsula that juts out into the Java Sea. The peninsula is low lying and swampy with a spine of dry ground which rises a few feet above the omnipresent swamp. The north of Tanjung Puting is characterized by gentle hills and gold-bearing alluvial plains. In the past maps of the region commonly portrayed a ridge of mountains coming down into Tanjung Puting. This mountainous ridge does not exist; in fact, nowhere does the altitude rise above 100-200 feet in Tanjung Puting.
Tanjung Puting is a veritable hothouse of ecodiversity. The diverse habitat zones shelter slightly different fauna and flora providing a great variety of microhabitats for plants and animals and thus, the opportunity for many species to be present in close proximity. In a Bornean context, tropical heath forest by itself is not representative of the largest trees, the tallest canopy, or the most diverse ecosystem.
Tropical swamp ecosystems are little represented in protected areas throughout Southeast Asia but are omnipresent in Tanjung Puting. In the peat swamp forest, many trees have stilt roots or aerial roots as adaptations to frequent flooding.
Aside from its remarkable biological attributes, Tanjung Puting is highly important for the well-being of the surrounding local human population. The wetlands provide vital ecological services such as flood control, stream control regulation, erosion control, natural biological filtration system, and seasonal nurseries for fish which are the major source of local animal protein. Many of these services have an impact well beyond the local area. For instance, the waters surrounding Tanjung Puting attract fishing vessels from many different parts of Indonesia. In addition, local people benefit from a great variety of forest products including honey, waxes, aromatic woods, fibers for ropes and cloth, medicinal plants, fuel oils, thatching materials, rattan, firewood, incense, wild rubber, edible latexes, resins, natural pesticides, fungicides and possible virocides.
For the above reasons and many other reasons not noted, Tanjung Puting is recognized as one of the most important and outstanding provincial treasures in Kalimantan Tengah. The national government has also made a strong commitment to protect the forest, its wildlife, and to manage the park wisely. Tanjung Puting has increasingly gained international prestige and recognition. As a result, more and more visitors from all over the world are experiencing a fresh new outlook on nature and an appreciation of the tropical rain forest which was humankind’s original “Garden of Eden.”
The peat swamp and fresh water swamp forest associations present in Tanjung Puting were at one time extensive along the south coast of Borneo from Banjarmasin in the east to the Kapuas River near Pontianak in the west. These swamps extended up the northwest coast of Sarawak and Brunei and as far as the Klias peninsula in Sabah. In Sarawak in general, peat swamp forests are very well developed and they are still very important there as a natural resource. In Kalimantan, however, much of the swamp habitat has been converted, both permanently and on shifting cultivation basis, to rice fields. Swamp habitats, as found in Tanjung Puting, are becoming more difficult to find. Although Tanjung Puting has suffered some encroachment from human activity, the Park area is still wild and pristine. The vegetation supports a large population of animals, making this one of the most important areas in Southeast Asia for the preservation primates, birds, reptiles and fish.
One of tourist attraction in Indonesia is the crater Toba Lake in the Batak highlands, approximately five hours drive from Medan. Toba Lake is the largest lake in South East Asia and also one of the most spectacular, surrounded by tall mountains and with the large island of Samosir in the middle. If we descend from the mountain we see the lake glittering in all its beauty. The Dutch writer Rudy Kousbroek even called Toba Lake, ‘the most beautiful place on earth’. Most visitors stay on the peninsula of Tuk Tuk on Samosir, named after the linguist Herman Neubronner van der Tuuk. In general people stay several days on Samosir to discover the island, to visit traditional Batak villages, to swim in the lake and go to the hot springs in Pangururan.
The centerpiece of North Sumatra, Lake Toba’s bracing climate and magnificent panoramas clear the mind and soothe the soul. For decades a magnet from regional and foreign visitors alike, Toba has developed into a full-featured highland resort while retaining the rustic charm and relaxed ambiance that define Toba’s attraction. Formed by a stupendous prehistoric volcanic explosion, the 100 km long lake is the largest in Southeast Asia and one of the deepest and the highest in the world. The drama of that cataclysmic birth persist in 500 meter cliffs dropping into the blue-green waters, surrounded by steep, pine covered sloped, the climate is fresh and pleasant, with just enough rain to support the lush vegetation.
Toba Lake is a 100kms x 30kms volcanic lake in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Toba Lake has become one of the main tourist attractions for a long time in North Sumatra apart from Bukit Lawang and Nias, visited by both domestic and foreign tourist.
The Origin of Toba Lake
It is estimated that Toba Lake was formed during a volcanic eruption about 73.000-75.000 years ago and which was the most recent super volcano eruption. Bill Rose and Craig Chesner from Michigan Technological University estimated that volcanic materials that were spewed out the mountain totaling 2800km3, with 800km3 ignimbrites rock and 2000km3 volcanic ash that is estimated was blown (wind) to the west for 2 weeks. This incident caused mass death (destruction) and to several species also causes extinction. According to some DNA proof, this eruption also shrinks the humankind population to around thousands back then.
After this eruption, a caldera was formed that was filled by water afterwards and now known as Toba Lake. The pressure from the dormant magma, which has not yet erupted, caused Samosir Island to emerge. The region that now known as Samosir Island originally was a peninsula that attached to the Sumatran mainland. In this peninsula the Netherlands built the water canal 10 m width.
For the first time visitors, going through Medan-Parapat route seeing a lake as big as that made Samosir appear like an amazing grand island. However, the island perspective will certainly faded with the increase in Toba plateau visitor, Nias and the other places in the south, through Medan-Berastagi route. Samosir occupied a central geographical position in the Toba plateau region. With the declaration of the Toba Samosir Regency (the inhabitants 302.000 lives, the area with wide of 3.440 km including the lake) it finally ascend from only a shadow into a Regency. Moreover, the width of Samosir Island exceed Singapore (647 km), in fact Toba Lake almost twice bigger than Singapore. The Samosir image in tourism books as the backpackers location must be changed because this historic place must restore the greatness of its past.
Pantai Senggigi or Senggigi beach is one of the famous beaches in West Lombok .Directly facing the Straits of Lombok, Senggigi Beach has become the center of marine tourism in Lombok Island. The calm waves and coastal areas have become pleasant place to swim while enjoying views of Mount Agung (Bali) which is visible from this place. There is also Pura Batu Bolong, a temple built on a coral reef which is located at the edge of the beach.
There are many tourist activities that visitors can do in this beach, such as swimming, water playing, diving, snorkelling, sunbathing, and playing around making sandcastles. At this beach, many kinds of Lombok dishes are served in restaurants which are lined up neatly at the edge of the beach. The price varies from Rp 30,000 to Rp 300,000 each person . Almost every restaurant in Senggigi Beach serves typical Lombok dishes such as Ayam Taliwang and Plecing Kangkung. Around Senggigi Beach there are lots of inn,from five-star hotels, resorts, hotels, to lodge house. Moreover, in the coastal areas, restaurants, cafe, bar, open-air market, a row of souvenir and gift stall, mosque, public toilets, parking lots, and others are often found.
Senggigi Beach is quite easily reachable. The distance is only about 12 kilometers from northwest Mataram and it can be reached by car or rented motorcycle. For renting a car with the driver, the charge is around Rp 300,000 for an eight-hour trip. While for the motorcycle is about Rp 100,000. Other transportation that can be used toward the Senggigi from Mataram is Blue Bird taxi or Express whose charge could reach to Rp 30,000 – Rp40,000
Nowadays, reading academic paper is very important for students. Many students have problems when read it. It is important for them to know that it will be detriment for them in the future. I believe there are some common problems that make them difficult to read it. This paper intends to provide some common problems when reading academic paper. In the following section I will explain about common problems when reading academic paper.
Firstly, the lack of student’s vocabularies. Vocabularies are the collection of words that they use on a daily life. Vocabularies play a fundamental role in the reading process. Students cannot understand a text without knowing what most of the words mean. So, if the students feel strange about some words while reading academic papers, they will stick in there. They will not go on the next sentence until they find out what it means.
Secondly, the lack of student’s concentration and will. Concentration and will is an ability that makes someone focuses on his or her work. Concentration and will are related each other. Students have to focus on what they are read and they have to be eager to read the academic paper. When they try to read the academic paper without concentration, they will not get what are the ideas of the academic paper.
The main ideas of the common problems in reading academic paper are about lack of student’s vocabularies, concentration, and will. Students will lose their mood in reading academic paper if they meet with strange vocabularies that they don’t use in daily life. They are likely to be lazy to search the meaning of it. Not only student’s vocabularies factor, but also student’s concentration and will factor have an effect on them when reading academic paper.